e-Devlet Ölçümleme: Economist Intelligence Unit

Economist Intelligence Unit: e-Hazırlık Endeksi

Digital Economy Rankings 2010
Beyond e-Readiness

"This year begins the second decade of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s annual benchmarking study of countries’ digital development, previously known as the “e-readiness rankings”. Given the prevalence of Internet-connected consumers, businesses and governments, and the indispensable role that digital communications and services now play in most of the world’s economies, we believe that the countries in our study have achieved, to one degree or another, a state of e-readiness. The study’s new title, the “digital economy rankings”, captures the challenge of maximising the use of information and communications technology (ICT) that countries face in the years ahead."


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E-Readiness Rankings 2009
The Usage Imperative

"The past year has brought severe shocks to the economies and macroeconomic structures of countries around the world. In contrast to the last major crisis of a decade ago, however, global confidence in information and communications technology (ICT) and the virtues of digital development remains intact.

The 2009 e-readiness rankings reflect this complex environment. Digital development marches on, and millions more people across the globe continue to be connected to—and use—broadband Internet and other advanced communications technologies. But the Economist Intelligence Unit’s long-established definition of e-readiness emphasises that a country’s digital advancement is dependent on progress in other, interconnected areas, such as the business environment, education, support for innovation, legal frameworks, and government policy and vision."


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E-Readiness Rankings 2008
Maintaining Momentum

" E-readiness, as the Economist Intelligence Unit defines it, is the measure of a country’s ability to leverage digital channels for communication, commerce and government in order to further economic and social development. Implied in this measure is the extent to which the usage of communications devices and Internet services creates efficiencies for business and citizens, and the extent to which this usage is leveraged in the development of information and communications technology (ICT) industries."


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The 2007 E-Readiness Rankings
Raising the Bar

"In 2007, the Economist Intelligence Unit looks out on a world that continues to adopt information and communications technology (ICT) quickly. More importantly, the world is also getting better at adapting to new ways of living and working based on ICT. Digital networks and applications now underpin not only how organisations work and do business, but increasingly also how people obtain goods and services and remain connected with friends and family.

E-readiness is progressing around the world, but achieving it is growing more complex. Basic connectivity, for example, is no longer adequate to use the Internet efficiently; the connections must be fast, secure and affordable. Likewise, governments must demonstrate their commitment to digital development not only through broad policy, but also in practical ways, such as delivering public services to citizens and business via electronic channels."


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The 2006 E-Readiness Rankings
A White Paper from the EIU

"W ith over 1bn Internet users and 2bn mobile-phone users worldwide, and continual progress in most qualitative indicators of technology-related development, the world in early 2006 may be proclaimed ever more “e-ready”. This year’s e-readiness rankings reflect such progress, as all but two countries have improved their scores from the previous year. Most of the rankings’ top players have moved upwards in lock step, and there has been little real movement in the broader ranks from 2005 to 2006 (although the addition of three new countries this year has pushed some down the list).

Just as encouraging is the apparent narrowing of the “digital divide” in some facets of e-readiness. This is particularly evident in basic connectivity: emerging markets are providing the vast majority of the world’s new phone and Internet connections. Many developing countries are also enhancing their e-readiness in other ways—for example through the growth of information technology (IT) outsourcing capabilities in countries such as Bulgaria, Vietnam and, of course, India."


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The 2005 E-Readiness Rankings
A White Paper from the EIU

"The past year was perhaps the first since the technology bubble burst that the global economy has felt comfortable in a digital skin. Spending on information and communications technology (ICT) showed renewed buoyancy in developed markets, while in emerging markets growth of connectivity— individuals’ and organisations’ access to voice and data communications—continued on a rapid ascent.  The best news, however, is that this renewed enthusiasm for the Internet economy comes with a healthy dose of sobriety. Indeed, pragmatism now seems to be guiding ICT developments. Investment in e-business infrastructure, software and systems is focused on making it work robustly. Internet security management is becoming increasingly important. And there is growing recognition that e-readiness depends on many more factors than just connectivity."


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The 2004 E-Readiness Rankings
A White Paper from the EIU

"Prospects for the information and communications technology (ICT) industry look sprightlier than they have for a while. Investment in encryption and security applications is on the rise, and new corporate governance legislation has boosted demand for database management and storage technology. Globally, there has been resurgence in telecoms services usage and new service adoption, particularly by enterprises taking advantage of Internet Protocol (IP)-based services and applications.
Much of this is opportunistic, with consumers taking advantage of increased priced-based competition for mobile, fixed-line and data services, and companies exploiting the post- bubble collapse in bandwidth prices. The digital economy may not, for now, be generating much more revenue for the service and equipment providers that support it, but the tools of 
e-business are becoming more ingrained—and more affordable—in corporate operations and consumer behaviour."


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The 2003 E-Readiness Rankings
A White Paper from the EIU

"It has been three years since the dotcom meltdown of 2000, but the painful adjustment is not over, particularly in the US, the locus of the Internet boom. Financing for start-ups in the US has dried up, and the economy is still absorbing thousands of workers laid off from dotcom flops. The global economic malaise has undercut IT spending and scaled back public infrastructure initiatives. Yet the Internet revolution ploughs forward—in the US and around the world—chastened and refocused, yet more powerful than ever. The Internet is reinventing the way that businesses interact with their customers, with other businesses and, increasingly, with governments."


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Economist Intelligence Unit: Demokrasi Endeksi

Democracy Index 2015
Democracy in an Age of Anxiety

"This is the eighth edition of the Democracy Index. It reflects the situation in 2015, a year in which democracy was tested in the face of war, terrorism, mass migration and other crises, and, in some cases, suffered serious setbacks. The title of this year’s report reflects the threat to democracy emanating from the fearful mood of our times, which informs the reactions of ordinary people and political elites alike. An increased sense of personal and societal anxiety and insecurity in the face of diverse perceived risks and threats—economic, political, social and security—is undermining democracy, which depends on a steadfast commitment to upholding enlightenment values (liberty, equality, fraternity, reason, tolerance and free expression) and fostering democratic institutions and a democratic political culture."


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Democracy Index 2014
Democracy and ist Discontents

"This is the seventh edition of the Democracy Index. It reflects the situation at the end of 2014, a year in which democracy’s discontents were on the rise. As has been the pattern in recent years, there was little change in the aggregate global score. The same number of countries (48) recorded an improvement in their score as recorded a deterioration; the remainder (71) retained the same score as in 2013. Three regions experienced a regression (Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa) as signified by a decline in their regional average score. Two regions—Asia and eastern Europe—recorded a slight improvement in their average score. There was no change in the average score for North America or western Europe. In those two regions, however, popular discontent with democracy was expressed in the growth of populist and protest parties, which, in Europe, have come to pose an increasing challenge to the established political order, to the extent that several political upsets are on the agenda in 2015."


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Democracy Index 2013
Democracy in Limbo

"This is the sixth edition of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy index. It reflects the situation at the end of 2013. In 2013 global democracy was in limbo, in the sense that, as has been the pattern in recent years, there was little overall change--there was neither significant progress nor regression over the course of the year. Average regional scores in 2013 were similar to scores in 2012."


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Democracy Index 2012
Democracy at a Standstill

"This is the fifth edition of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy index. It reflects the situation at the end of 2012. In 2012 global democracy was at a standstill in the sense that there was neither significant progress nor regression in democracy in that year. Average regional scores in 2012 were very similar to scores in 2011."


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Democracy Index 2011
Democracy under Stress

"This is the fourth edition of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy index. It reflects the situation as of the beginning of December 2011. The first edition, published in The Economist’s The World in 2007, measured the state of democracy in September 2006; the second edition covered the situation towards the end of 2008; and the third as of November 2010. 

The index provides a snapshot of the state of democracy worldwide for 165 independent states and two territories—this covers almost the entire population of the world and the vast majority of the world’s independent states (micro states are excluded). The overall Democracy index is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. Countries are placed within one of four types of regimes: full democracies; flawed democracies; hybrid regimes; and authoritarian regimes."


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Democracy Index 2010
Democracy in Retreat

"This is the third edition of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s democracy index. It reflects the situation as of November 2010. The first edition, published in The Economist’s The World in 2007, measured the state of democracy in September 2006 and the second edition covered the situation towards the end of 2008. The index provides a snapshot of the state of democracy worldwide for 165 independent states and two territories—this covers almost the entire population of the world and the vast majority of the world’s independent states (micro states are excluded). The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. Countries are placed within one of four types of regimes: full democracies; flawed democracies; hybrid regimes; and authoritarian regimes."


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The Economist Intelligence Unit's Index of Democracy 2008

"The results of the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index 2008 confirm that, following a decades-long global trend in democratisation, the spread of democracy has come to a halt. Comparing the results for 2008 with those from the first edition of the index, which covered 2006, shows that the dominant pattern in the past two years has been stagnation. Although there is no recent trend of outright regression, there are few instances of significant improvement. However, the global financial crisis, resulting in a sharp and possibly protracted recession, could threaten  democracy in some parts of the world. "


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The Economist Intelligence Unit's Index of Democracy (2006)

"Defining and measuring democracy
There is no consensus on how to measure democracy, definitions of democracy are contested and there is an ongoing lively debate on the subject. The issue is not only of academic interest. For example, although democracy-promotion is high on the list of American foreign-policy priorities, there is no consensus within the American government on what constitutes a democracy. As one observer recently put it, “the world’s only superpower is rhetorically and militarily promoting a political system that remains undefined—and it is staking its credibility and treasure on that pursuit” (Horowitz, 2006, p 114).
"


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