2017 Paying Taxes
This eleventh edition of Paying Taxes comes at a time when, with low commodity prices and continued weak economic growth, there is an increasing need to broaden tax bases, increase voluntary compliance and build tax capacity, particularly in developing economies. Everyone benefits if tax systems are well understood and are effective and efficient. To achieve this, systems need to minimise the administrative burden that they place upon governments and taxpayers while raising the revenues that are needed to fund public services.
The Paying Taxes study looks at how easy it is for a standardised, medium-sized domestic company to pay its taxes. By gathering and analysing comprehensive quantitative data to compare business taxation over time and across economies, Paying Taxes encourages economies to move towards more efficient systems, offers measurable benchmarks for reform, and serves as a resource for academics, journalists, private sector researchers and others interested in tax systems.
2015 Benchmarking Public Procurement
From bridges to roads, hospitals to power plants, trillions of dollars are spent every year by government agencies on behalf of their citizens in public procurement-related transactions. 1 In developing countries, it is estimated that US$820 billion a year is spent on public procurement, accounting for an estimated 15-20% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and up to 50% or more of total government expenditure. In fragile states, public procurement can account for up to 60-70% of all government expenditure. For example, public procurement represents about 70% of government ex pen diture in Timor-Leste, Sierra Leone, and Uganda, and 65.9% in Swaziland.
Public procurement is important in high-income countries as well, reaching on average 12% of GDP and about 29% of total general government expenditure (UNCITRAL, 2011). In fiscal year 2013 alone, federal procurement spending in the United States topped US$460 billion, according to the Office of Management and Budget, a number that roughly equates to the combined GDPs of Chile and the Czech Republic (World Bank, 2013), two high-income economies. Moreover, the volume of government expenditure through public procurement has been steadily increasing. In the European Union, between 2006 and 2010, the number of contract award notices published annually increased by about 62%.
2009National E-Government Institutions: Functions, Models and Trends
The term e-government (electronic government) refers to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to enhance the range andquality of public services to citizens and businesses while making government more efficient, accountable, and trans-parent (Schware 2005). E-government goals may include improving the following:
• Management of public finances, human resources, andservice delivery
• Access to and quality of public services, particularly forpoor people (World Bank 2003)
• Investment climates, including lowering regulatoryburdens and business-to-government transaction costs
• Government transparency and accountability.
2002 The e-Government Handbook for Developing Countries
The process of globalization may very well entail both a reduction of income disparities among countries, and increasing income inequalities within countries. If this is so, for many countries, addressing the Digital Divide issue will be as much an external as an internal battle. On both fronts, e-government will be a powerful tool to help all types of economies (developed, developing and in transition) to bring the benefits of the emerging global information society to the largest possible part of their respective populations.
Direct effects of e-government include cost effectiveness in government and public operations, significant savings in areas such as public procurement, tax collection and customs operations, with better and continuous contacts with citizens, especially those living in remote or less densely populated areas.
- 2016: ODRA Version:3. 1 Whats New
- 2016: ODRA Version:3. 1 Methodology
- 2016: ODRA Version:3. 1 User Guide