EU AI Act: RECITALS 61-70
(61) Standardisation should play a key role to provide technical solutions to providers to ensure compliance with this Regulation. Compliance with harmonised standards as defined in Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council should be a means for providers to demonstrate conformity with the requirements of this Regulation. To ensure the effectiveness of standards as policy tool for the Union and considering the importance of standards for ensuring conformity with the requirements of this Regulation and for the competitiveness of undertakings, it is necessary to ensure a balanced representation of interests by involving all relevant stakeholders in the development of standards. The standardisation process should be transparent in terms of legal and natural persons participating in the standardisation activities.
(61a) In order to facilitate compliance, the first standardisation requests should be issued by the Commission two months after the entry into force of this Regulation at the latest. This should serve to improve legal certainty, thereby promoting investment and innovation in AI, as well as competitiveness and growth of the Union market, while enhancing multistakeholder governance representing all relevant European stakeholders such as the AI Office, European standardisation organisations and bodies or experts groups established under relevant sectorial Union law as well as industry, SMEs, start-ups, civil society, researchers and social partners, and should ultimately facilitate global cooperation on standardisation in the field of AI in a manner consistent with Union values. When preparing the standardisation request, the Commission should consult the AI Office and the AI advisory Forum in order to collect relevant expertise.
(61b) When AI systems are intended to be used at the workplace, harmonised standards should be limited to technical specifications and procedures.
(61c) The Commission should be able to adopt common specifications under certain conditions, when no relevant harmonised standard exists or to address specific fundamental rights concerns. Through the whole drafting process, the Commission should regularly consult the AI Office and its advisory forum, the European standardisation organisations and bodies or expert groups established under relevant sectorial Union law as well as relevant stakeholders, such as industry, SMEs, start-ups, civil society, researchers and social partners.
(61d) When adopting common specifications, the Commission should strive for regulatory alignment of AI with likeminded global partners, which is key to fostering innovation and cross-border partnerships within the field of AI, as coordination with likeminded partners in international standardisation bodies is of great importance.
(62) In order to ensure a high level of trustworthiness of high-risk AI systems, those systems should be subject to a conformity assessment prior to their placing on the market or putting into service. To increase the trust in the value chain and to give certainty to businesses about the performance of their systems, third-parties that supply AI components may voluntarily apply for a third-party conformity assessment.
(63) It is appropriate that, in order to minimise the burden on operators and avoid any possible duplication, for high-risk AI systems related to products which are covered by existing Union harmonisation legislation following the New Legislative Framework approach, the compliance of those AI systems with the requirements of this Regulation should be assessed as part of the conformity assessment already foreseen under that legislation. The applicability of the requirements of this Regulation should thus not affect the specific logic, methodology or general structure of conformity assessment under the relevant specific New Legislative Framework legislation. This approach is fully reflected in the interplay between this Regulation and the [Machinery Regulation]. While safety risks of AI systems ensuring safety functions in machinery are addressed by the requirements of this Regulation, certain specific requirements in the [Machinery Regulation] will ensure the safe integration of the AI system into the overall machinery, so as not to compromise the safety of the machinery as a whole. The [Machinery Regulation] applies the same definition of AI system as this Regulation.
(64) Given the complexity of high-risk AI systems and the risks that are associated to them, it is essential to develop a more adequate capacity for the application of third party conformity assessment for high-risk AI systems. However, given the current experience of professional premarket certifiers in the field of product safety and the different nature of risks involved, it is appropriate to limit, at least in an initial phase of application of this Regulation, the scope of application of third-party conformity assessment for highrisk AI systems other than those related to products. Therefore, the conformity assessment of such systems should be carried out as a general rule by the provider under its own responsibility, with the only exception of AI systems intended to be used for the remote biometric identification of persons, or AI systems intended to be used to make inferences about personal characteristics of natural persons on the basis of biometric or biometrics-based data, including emotion recognition systems for which the involvement of a notified body in the conformity assessment should be foreseen, to the extent they are not prohibited.
(65) In order to carry out third-party conformity assessments when so required, notified bodies should be designated under this Regulation by the national competent authorities, provided they are compliant with a set of requirements, notably on independence, competence, absence of conflicts of interests and minimum cybersecurity requirements. Member States should encourage the designation of a sufficient number of conformity assessment bodies, in order to make the certification feasible in a timely manner. The procedures of assessment, designation, notification and monitoring of conformity assessment bodies should be implemented as uniformly as possible in Member States, with a view to removing administrative border barriers and ensuring that the potential of the internal market is realised.
(65a) In line with Union commitments under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, it is adequate to maximise the acceptance of test results produced by competent conformity assessment bodies, independent of the territory in which they are established, where necessary to demonstrate conformity with the applicable requirements of the Regulation. The Commission should actively explore possible international instruments for that purpose and in particular pursue the possible establishment of mutual recognition agreements with countries which are on a comparable level of technical development, and have compatible approach concerning AI and conformity assessment.
(66) In line with the commonly established notion of substantial modification for products regulated by Union harmonisation legislation, it is appropriate that an high-risk AI system undergoes a new conformity assessment whenever an unplanned change occurs which goes beyond controlled or predetermined changes by the provider including continuous learning and which may create a new unacceptable risk and significantly affect the compliance of the high-risk AI system with this Regulation or when the intended purpose of the system changes. In addition, as regards AI systems which continue to ‘learn’ after being placed on the market or put into service (i.e. they automatically adapt how functions are carried out), it is necessary to provide rules establishing that changes to the algorithm and its performance that have been pre-determined by the provider and assessed at the moment of the conformity assessment should not constitute a substantial modification. The same should apply to updates of the AI system for security reasons in general and to protect against evolving threats of manipulation of the system, provided that they do not amount to a substantial modification.
(67) High-risk AI systems should bear the CE marking to indicate their conformity with this Regulation so that they can move freely within the internal market. For physical high-risk AI systems, a physical CE marking should be affixed, and may be complemented by a digital CE marking. For digital only high-risk AI systems, a digital CE marking should be used. Member States should not create unjustified obstacles to the placing on the market or putting into service of high-risk AI systems that comply with the requirements laid down in this Regulation and bear the CE marking.
(68) Under certain conditions, rapid availability of innovative technologies may be crucial for health and safety of persons, the environment and climate change and for society as a whole. It is thus appropriate that under exceptional reasons of protection of life and health of natural persons, environmental protection and the protection of critical infrastructure, Member States could authorise the placing on the market or putting into service of AI systems which have not undergone a conformity assessment.
(69) In order to facilitate the work of the Commission and the Member States in the artificial intelligence field as well as to increase the transparency towards the public, providers of high-risk AI systems other than those related to products falling within the scope of relevant existing Union harmonisation legislation, should be required to register their high-risk AI system and foundation models in a EU database, to be established and managed by the Commission. This database should be freely and publicly accessible, easily understandable and machine-readable. The database should also be user-friendly and easily navigable, with search functionalities at minimum allowing the general public to search the database for specific high-risk systems, locations, categories of risk under Annex IV and keywords. Deployers who are public authorities or Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies or deployers acting on their behalf and deployers who are undertakings designated as a gatekeeper under Regulation (EU)2022/1925 should also register in the EU database before putting into service or using a high-risk AI system for the first time and following each substantial modification. Other deployers should be entitled to do so voluntarily. Any substantial modification of high-risk AI systems shall also be registered in the EU database. The Commission should be the controller of that database, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council. In order to ensure the full functionality of the database, when deployed, the procedure for setting the database should include the elaboration of functional specifications by the Commission and an independent audit report. The Commission should take into account cybersecurity and hazard-related risks when carrying out its tasks as data controller on the EU database. In order to maximise the availability and use of the database by the public, the database, including the information made available through it, should comply with requirements under the Directive 2019/882.
(70) Certain AI systems intended to interact with natural persons or to generate content may pose specific risks of impersonation or deception irrespective of whether they qualify as high-risk or not. In certain circumstances, the use of these systems should therefore be subject to specific transparency obligations without prejudice to the requirements and obligations for high-risk AI systems. In particular, natural persons should be notified that they are interacting with an AI system, unless this is obvious from the circumstances and the context of use. Moreover, natural persons should be notified when they are exposed to an emotion recognition system or a biometric categorisation system. Such information and notifications should be provided in accessible formats for persons with disabilities. Further, users, who use an AI system to generate or manipulate image, audio or video content that appreciably resembles existing persons, places or events and would falsely appear to a person to be authentic, should disclose that the content has been artificially created or manipulated by labelling the artificial intelligence output accordingly and disclosing its artificial origin.